D. Palma and P.L. Montessoro






Recent Advances in Biometrics


D. Palma and P.L. Montessoro, "Biometric-based human recognition systems: an overview," in Recent Advances in Biometrics, pp. 1-21, London, UK: IntechOpen, 2022.


    title     = {Biometric-based human recognition systems: an overview},
    author    = {Palma, David and Montessoro, Pier Luca},
    editor    = {Sarfraz, Muhammad},
    booktitle = {Recent Advances in Biometrics},
    chapter   = {13},
    year      = {2022},
    pages     = {1--21},
    address   = {London, UK},
    publisher = {IntechOpen}


With the proliferation of automated systems for reliable and highly secure human authentication and identification, the importance of technological solutions in biometrics is growing along with security awareness. Indeed, conventional authentication methodologies, consisting of knowledge-based systems that make use of something you know (e.g., username and password) and token-based systems that make use of something you have (e.g., identification card), are not able to meet the strict requirements of reliable security applications. Conversely, biometric systems make use of behavioral (extrinsic) and/or physiological (intrinsic) human characteristics, overcoming the security issues affecting the conventional methods for personal authentication. This book chapter provides an overview of the most commonly used biometric traits along with their properties, the various biometric system operating modalities as well as various security aspects related to these systems. In particular, it will be discussed the different stages involved in a biometric recognition process and further discuss various threats that can be exploited to compromise the security of a biometric system. Finally, in order to evaluate the systems’ performance, metrics must be adopted. The most widely used metrics are, therefore, discussed in relation to the provided system accuracy and security, and applicability in real-world deployments.